The Caro-Kann Defense is a King’s Pawn Opening beginning with 1. e4 c6


Black plays c6 and is ready to play d5 next

This move is a little hard to understand right away. At first glance it doesn’t seem like the Caro-Kann Defense is aligned with the opening principles of chess – Black doesn’t open any significant lines of development for the pieces.  But black has some clever ideas here…



The Caro-Kann defense can be best understood as an attempt to “reform” the Scandinavian Defense and French Defense in black’s favor!  I would recommend learning the fundamentals of these openings before studying the Caro-Kann Defense.

In all three openings, black wants to strike at the center with …d5.  But doing so right away (1…d5 – the Scandinavian Defense) will often lead to black’s queen having to move several times after the pawns are exchanged, while playing 1…e6 and 2…d5 (The French Defense) makes black’s light-squared bishop a very passive piece!

Black wants to avoid both problems by playing the Caro-Kann Defense.

Let’s consider the position after 1. e4 c6 2. d4 d5:

Caro Kann Defense

White has several ways to proceed:

  • White can advance with e5 (The Advance Variation), claiming a space advantage)
  • White can defend the e-pawn with 3. Nc3 or 3. Nd2 (The classical Variation)
  • White can exchange on d5 and quickly play c4 (The Panov-Botvinnik Attack)
  • White can exchange on d5 without following up with c4 (The Exchange Variation)
  • White can play f3, adding defense to the king’s pawn (The Fantasy variation)

3. e5 – The Advance Variation

White advances pawn

White claims a space advantage right away.  But unlike the analogous line in the French Defense, black can activate his light bishop with 3…Bf5.

Only later will black play …e6 and …c5, striking at the base of white’s pawn chain.

Of course, there’s always a tradeoff:

  • Black is slow to develop in this line, and white sometimes tries to blow the center open before black can get castled with an early c4 – especially if black strikes at the center with …c5 too early.


  • On the other hand, if black delays …c5 too long, white may take efforts to ensure black can never play it at all, and therefore that black will remain in a cramped position with less space! The maneuver Nb1-d2-b3 has become popular in some lines, clamping down on the c5 square.


Sometimes white tries to harass the light-squared bishop, as in the following line: 4. Nc3 e6 5. g4

White lashes out at the bishop

This is the so-called Shirov Attack.  Black’s bishop is active, but it’s also isolated from the rest of black’s army on the side of the board where white has a space advantage!  White is attempting to exploit this.

The game may continue 5…Bg6 6. Nge2 c5 7. h4 h5 8. Nf4

White attacks the bishop

8…Bh7! Black doesn’t want to give up the bishop and allow their pawn structure to be ruined, and would rather sacrifice a pawn! The game remains highly unbalanced after 9. Nxh5.


3. Nc3 or 3. Nd2 – the Classical Variation

Classical Caro Kann

If white reinforces the e-pawn with a knight, black’s only move to succeed in getting the light bishop out of its prison is 3…dxe4.  After 4. Nxe4 Bf5:

Classical Caro Main Line

Black once again succeeds in developing his bishop before playing …e6 and developing his kingside pieces.

White has several possible continuations here, but once again, the theme of harassing this bishop becomes important. The most popular continuation is 5. Ng3 Bg6 6. h4 (6. Ne2, intending Nf4, is another way to harass the bishop) h6 7. Nf3 Nd7 (otherwise Ne5 could be annoying) 8. h5 Bh7

Black retreats the bishop

White has used a series of threats to black’s bishop to gain time while expanding on the kingside.  White often intends to castle queenside and launch an attack if black castles short.  Now that the bishop can no longer be harassed, white often exchanges it – 9. Bd3 Bxd3 10. Qxd3.

Black sometimes castles queenside and sometimes castles kingside.

3. exd5 cxd5 4. c4 – the Panov-Botvinnik Attack

Panov Attack

After the eventual exchange of white’s c-pawn for black’s d-pawn, this opening often leads to an Isolated Queen’s Pawn position for white.

White will have a space advantage in the center, but their d-pawn will be isolated.  White will seek to make use of their piece mobility to generate an attack, while black will seek to pressure the d-pawn and use the d5 square as a safe outpost for their pieces.

One key benefit to this line for White should be mentioned – it makes it hard for black to achieve the aim of activating the light-square bishop, as I painfully learned in the following game:

4…Nf6 5. Nc3 Bf5?

A mistake in the Panov
  1. Qb3, forking d5 and b7. Black’s in trouble.

The Panov variation is often favored by white players who like to attack and who don’t mind playing Isolated Queen’s Pawn positions.

3. exd5 cxd5 4. Bd3 – The Exchange Variation

The Exchange caro

If white exchanges on d5 and then doesn’t follow up with c4, we have the Exchange Variation.

Unlike the French Defense Exchange Variation, the position is not symmetrical. White has a semi-open e-file, and black has a semi-open c-file.

In my experience, games in this line are often much slower to develop as both sides seek to realize their strategic plans.  Both sides will complete development and get castled, and then:

  • Black would like to put a rook on the c-file at some point, and if white plays c3 with a seemingly solid structure, black can play …b5 and …b4 to soften up white’s pawns (the “Minority Attack”). If white plays cxd4, their d-pawn would then be isolated. If white allows black to play …bxc3 and white recaptures with bxc3, the white c-pawn would then be missing its friend on b2 – and black will generate pressure down the c-file.


  • White would like to generate pressure on the e-file, and perhaps play f4-f5 at some point to generate an attack. They may also seek to implement a countermeasure to black’s idea mentioned above – such as meeting …b5 with b4 and a timely knight transfer into the c5 square, shutting black down on the c-file!


There are some memorized ideas to know in this line (for instance, white sometimes plays an early h3, preventing black’s light-bishop from developing to an active square for the time being), but this opening is better understood in terms of ideas than in terms of variations!

3. f3 – the Fantasy Variation

Fantasy Caro

It’s rarely correct to play f3 or …f6 early in the opening, but this isn’t as bad as it looks! White seeks to make sure that they maintain their entire center if black exchanges on e4, and meanwhile keeps black’s light-squared bishop restricted.

Black has two common ways to proceed:

3…e6 gives up on trying to free the light-bishop from its prison, and play becomes akin to a wacky version of the French Defense.  Black has played …c6, a move that makes no sense from a French Defense perspective since black almost always wants to play …c5 at some point early on, and can usual do so in a single move. But white’s f3 pawn is no gem either – now that its job of restricting the bishop is gone, it’s just getting in the way of white’s knight coming to its natural square on f3!

3…dxe4 4. fxe4 e5! Is black’s more aggressive continuation

Black strikes back with e5

Black strikes out at white’s center.

White cannot play 5. dxe5? as 5…Qh4+ would be very strong. 5. Nf3 Bg4 6. Bc4



Fantasy - Bishop comes out

Black has to be careful here.  6…Nf6? 7. Bxf7+! Kxf7 8. Nxe5+ wins the piece back for white with “interest,” and white is winning. 6…Nd7 is a safe move, however.

White has more piece activity for the time being, but black has open lines for all of their pieces, and white is also likely to end up with an isolated pawn in the center. The game is complex, but roughly balanced.

I must admit I’m somewhat biased towards the Caro-Kann as black.  It’s been my weapon of choice against the King’s Pawn Opening for most of my chess career and has served me well on my journey to Master.


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