The Queen’s Gambit is a Queen’s Pawn Opening beginning with 1. d4 d5 2. c4

White advanced a pawn to c4

The Queen’s Gambit is white’s most popular response to the Symmetrical Queen’s Pawn Opening, and the most popular pawn “sacrifice” in chess opening theory by far.

The move 2. c4 helps white fight for a space advantage in the center, which is a key component of the Opening Principles.

Of course, the pawn does seem to be undefended…but let’s examine what happens if black accepts this pawn sacrifice with 2…dxc4

  • Black is temporarily up a pawn, but their control of the center will be greatly reduced. Now or later, white may play e4 and obtain full central control.


  • Black’s c4 pawn is rather weak. After white moves the e-pawn, white’s light-squared bishop will be eyeing this pawn, and it will be difficult for black to stay a pawn-up in the long run without making significant concessions.


Because of these factors, black often declines the Queen’s Gambit – and the white c-pawn is allowed to remain standing proudly on c4, exerting pressure on the center.

Black has many ways to respond to the Queen’s Gambit.  Let’s consider some of them below:

2…e6 – Queen’s Gambit Declined

Black declines the gambit

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This has been one of the most popular ways to deal with the Queen’s Gambit over the years.  Black simply reinforces his central pawn and opens a line of development for his bishop.

Play may continue with 3. Nc3 Nf6 (3…c5 is an alternative known as the Tarrasch Defense) 4. Nf3 Be7 5. Bg5 (White develops this bishop actively before playing e3) 5…0-0 6. e3:

White plays e3 in the Queen's Gambit Declined

White finally decides it’s time to defend their c-pawn.  White has a slight space advantage and black may have trouble activating their light-squared bishop, so white maintains a slight advantage.


Alternatively, white may opt for the Catalan set-up against the Queen’s Gambit Declined by fianchettoing the light-squared bishop, such as after 1. d4 d5 2. c4 e6 3. Nf3 Nf6 4. g3 Be7 5. Bg2 dxc4 6. 0-0:

White castles kingside

In the Catalan, White brings his light-squared bishop onto the long diagonal.  Since this bishop can no longer recapture the pawn on c4, black is often more inclined to capture this loose pawn – but white still often gets it back.

For example, after 7. Qc2 b5 8. a4! It’s difficult for black to hold onto their pawn without making a concession.  8…a6 is not possible due to the pin on the a-file, and 8…c6 leads to the long diagonal being completely opened to white’s light bishop after the exchange on b5.


2…c6 – The Slav Defense

Black has played c6

In recent years, the Slav Defense has been black’s most popular reply to the Queen’s Gambit.

Not only does this move reinforce the d-pawn, but it also creates a far more credible threat to capture on c4 in the future in some lines.

This is because, if black captures on c4 and follows up with …b5, defending his newfound extra pawn, the c6 pawn will add some extra stability to this pawn chain.

White can, of course, defend this pawn immediately with 3. e3 –  But then black has succeeded in eliciting a concession from white! Unlike the Queen’s Gambit Declined line we examined above, here white does not succeed in developing their dark-squared bishop actively before locking it in.

Instead, if white is up to the challenge and develops with 3. Nc3 Nf6 (…Nf6 is occasionally delayed or eschewed altogether by black. The Marshall Gambit is one exciting possibility if black doesn’t play this move!) 4. Nf3:

Black is deciding whether to take on c4 or play e6

Black can either play 4…e6 (The Semi-Slav Defense) or make good on his threat to play 4…dxc4.  White often responds with 5. a4, preventing black from creating a stable pawn chain for the extra pawn (with …b5)

After 5…Bf5 6. e3 e6 7. Bxc4 Bb4, White succeeds in recouping the pawn, but being forced to play a4 is somewhat of a concession as well!  Now black gains permanent access to the b4 square, and his minor pieces cannot be kicked away from this square.


2…dxc4 (Queen’s Gambit Accepted)

Black takes the pawn on c4

As discussed in the intro, black is rarely able to maintain the extra pawn.  Black often will give the pawn back, and use the time white spends recapturing this pawn to either strike at the center or develop their pieces.

For example, 1. d4 d5 2. c4 dxc4 3. e4 e5, Black strikes at the white center.  This is black’s most common response to the ambitious 3. e4, claiming the full center for white.  Black is unlikely to remain up a pawn, but their pieces have very open lines of development.

If white is less ambitious in taking the center, for example after 1. d4 d5 2. c4 dxc4 3. Nf3 Nf6 4. e3 e6 5. Bxc4:

Black accepts the queen's gambit and now strikes in the center

Black now usually plays 5…c5.  White has succeeded in getting his pawn back, but black now strikes at the center to contest white’s space advantage.

2…e5 – The Albin Counter-Gambit

The Albin counter gambit - black advances a pawn to e5

In the Albin, black responds to a pawn sacrifice with one of his own! White almost always accepts this pawn sacrifice – allowing this move to “stand” would constitute a big concession.

Play often continues 3. dxe5 d4 4. Nf3 Nc6

This is black’s idea – use the d4 pawn to somewhat cramp the white pieces. Black can sometimes go after the far-from-home white pawn on e5 as well – winning this pawn would restore material equality.

White often continues by playing 5. g3 and simply completing development by Bg2 and 0-0.  Black may succeed in recovering a pawn with …Ng6 and then …Nxe5, but white can be happy with their lead in development.


2…Nf6?! – A Beginner’s Mistake!

A poor move by black

This has sometimes been called the Marshall Defense, but I don’t think there are any chess players today who consider 2…Nf6 to be a serious defense to the Queen’s Gambit.

This move is not a prudent way to decline white’s pawn sacrifice! By not reinforcing the d-pawn with a fellow pawn, black allows white to take over the center.

For example, after 3. cxd5 Nxd5, the simple 4. e4 assures white of a long-term space advantage.


In conclusion, the Queen’s Gambit is a complex opening with many possible black responses.  White often succeeds in getting at least a slight space advantage, no matter what black does.

The Queen’s Gambit is unique among “gambit-style” openings, in that it is considered primarily a sound, positional opening as opposed to an aggressive, tactical opening. It certainly helps that white is rarely in any real danger of being down a pawn!


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